Sliding Window algorithm template to solve all the Leetcode substring search problem.


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    Among all leetcode questions, I find that there are at least 5 substring search problem which could be solved by the sliding window algorithm.
    so I sum up the algorithm template here. wish it will help you!

    1. the template:
    public class Solution {
        public List<Integer> slidingWindowTemplateByHarryChaoyangHe(String s, String t) {
            //init a collection or int value to save the result according the question.
            List<Integer> result = new LinkedList<>();
            if(t.length()> s.length()) return result;
            
            //create a hashmap to save the Characters of the target substring.
            //(K, V) = (Character, Frequence of the Characters)
            Map<Character, Integer> map = new HashMap<>();
            for(char c : t.toCharArray()){
                map.put(c, map.getOrDefault(c, 0) + 1);
            }
            //maintain a counter to check whether match the target string.
            int counter = map.size();//must be the map size, NOT the string size because the char may be duplicate.
            
            //Two Pointers: begin - left pointer of the window; end - right pointer of the window
            int begin = 0, end = 0;
            
            //the length of the substring which match the target string.
            int len = Integer.MAX_VALUE; 
            
            //loop at the begining of the source string
            while(end < s.length()){
                
                char c = s.charAt(end);//get a character
                
                if( map.containsKey(c) ){
                    map.put(c, map.get(c)-1);// plus or minus one
                    if(map.get(c) == 0) counter--;//modify the counter according the requirement(different condition).
                }
                end++;
                
                //increase begin pointer to make it invalid/valid again
                while(counter == 0 /* counter condition. different question may have different condition */){
                    
                    char tempc = s.charAt(begin);//***be careful here: choose the char at begin pointer, NOT the end pointer
                    if(map.containsKey(tempc)){
                        map.put(tempc, map.get(tempc) + 1);//plus or minus one
                        if(map.get(tempc) > 0) counter++;//modify the counter according the requirement(different condition).
                    }
                    
                    /* save / update(min/max) the result if find a target*/
                    // result collections or result int value
                    
                    begin++;
                }
            }
            return result;
        }
    }
    
    1. Firstly, here is my sliding solution this question. I will sum up the template below this code.

    2) the similar questions are:

    https://leetcode.com/problems/minimum-window-substring/
    https://leetcode.com/problems/longest-substring-without-repeating-characters/
    https://leetcode.com/problems/substring-with-concatenation-of-all-words/
    https://leetcode.com/problems/longest-substring-with-at-most-two-distinct-characters/
    https://leetcode.com/problems/find-all-anagrams-in-a-string/

    3) I will give my solution for these questions use the above template one by one

    Minimum-window-substring
    https://leetcode.com/problems/minimum-window-substring/

    public class Solution {
        public String minWindow(String s, String t) {
            if(t.length()> s.length()) return "";
            Map<Character, Integer> map = new HashMap<>();
            for(char c : t.toCharArray()){
                map.put(c, map.getOrDefault(c,0) + 1);
            }
            int counter = map.size();
            
            int begin = 0, end = 0;
            int head = 0;
            int len = Integer.MAX_VALUE;
            
            while(end < s.length()){
                char c = s.charAt(end);
                if( map.containsKey(c) ){
                    map.put(c, map.get(c)-1);
                    if(map.get(c) == 0) counter--;
                }
                end++;
                
                while(counter == 0){
                    char tempc = s.charAt(begin);
                    if(map.containsKey(tempc)){
                        map.put(tempc, map.get(tempc) + 1);
                        if(map.get(tempc) > 0){
                            counter++;
                        }
                    }
                    if(end-begin < len){
                        len = end - begin;
                        head = begin;
                    }
                    begin++;
                }
                
            }
            if(len == Integer.MAX_VALUE) return "";
            return s.substring(head, head+len);
        }
    }
    

    you may find that I only change a little code above to solve the question "Find All Anagrams in a String":
    change

                    if(end-begin < len){
                        len = end - begin;
                        head = begin;
                    }
    

    to

                    if(end-begin == t.length()){
                        result.add(begin);
                    }
    

    longest substring without repeating characters
    https://leetcode.com/problems/longest-substring-without-repeating-characters/

    public class Solution {
        public int lengthOfLongestSubstring(String s) {
            Map<Character, Integer> map = new HashMap<>();
            int begin = 0, end = 0, counter = 0, d = 0;
    
            while (end < s.length()) {
                // > 0 means repeating character
                //if(map[s.charAt(end++)]-- > 0) counter++;
                char c = s.charAt(end);
                map.put(c, map.getOrDefault(c, 0) + 1);
                if(map.get(c) > 1) counter++;
                end++;
                
                while (counter > 0) {
                    //if (map[s.charAt(begin++)]-- > 1) counter--;
                    char charTemp = s.charAt(begin);
                    if (map.get(charTemp) > 1) counter--;
                    map.put(charTemp, map.get(charTemp)-1);
                    begin++;
                }
                d = Math.max(d, end - begin);
            }
            return d;
        }
    }
    

    Longest Substring with At Most Two Distinct Characters
    https://leetcode.com/problems/longest-substring-with-at-most-two-distinct-characters/

    public class Solution {
        public int lengthOfLongestSubstringTwoDistinct(String s) {
            Map<Character,Integer> map = new HashMap<>();
            int start = 0, end = 0, counter = 0, len = 0;
            while(end < s.length()){
                char c = s.charAt(end);
                map.put(c, map.getOrDefault(c, 0) + 1);
                if(map.get(c) == 1) counter++;//new char
                end++;
                while(counter > 2){
                    char cTemp = s.charAt(start);
                    map.put(cTemp, map.get(cTemp) - 1);
                    if(map.get(cTemp) == 0){
                        counter--;
                    }
                    start++;
                }
                len = Math.max(len, end-start);
            }
            return len;
        }
    }
    

    Substring with Concatenation of All Words
    https://leetcode.com/problems/substring-with-concatenation-of-all-words/

    public class Solution {
        public List<Integer> findSubstring(String S, String[] L) {
            List<Integer> res = new LinkedList<>();
            if (L.length == 0 || S.length() < L.length * L[0].length())   return res;
            int N = S.length();
            int M = L.length; // *** length
            int wl = L[0].length();
            Map<String, Integer> map = new HashMap<>(), curMap = new HashMap<>();
            for (String s : L) {
                if (map.containsKey(s))   map.put(s, map.get(s) + 1);
                else                      map.put(s, 1);
            }
            String str = null, tmp = null;
            for (int i = 0; i < wl; i++) {
                int count = 0;  // remark: reset count 
                int start = i;
                for (int r = i; r + wl <= N; r += wl) {
                    str = S.substring(r, r + wl);
                    if (map.containsKey(str)) {
                        if (curMap.containsKey(str))   curMap.put(str, curMap.get(str) + 1);
                        else                           curMap.put(str, 1);
                        
                        if (curMap.get(str) <= map.get(str))    count++;
                        while (curMap.get(str) > map.get(str)) {
                            tmp = S.substring(start, start + wl);
                            curMap.put(tmp, curMap.get(tmp) - 1);
                            start += wl;
                            
                            //the same as https://leetcode.com/problems/longest-substring-without-repeating-characters/
                            if (curMap.get(tmp) < map.get(tmp)) count--;
                            
                        }
                        if (count == M) {
                            res.add(start);
                            tmp = S.substring(start, start + wl);
                            curMap.put(tmp, curMap.get(tmp) - 1);
                            start += wl;
                            count--;
                        }
                    }else {
                        curMap.clear();
                        count = 0;
                        start = r + wl;//not contain, so move the start
                    }
                }
                curMap.clear();
            }
            return res;
        }
    }
    

    Find All Anagrams in a String
    https://leetcode.com/problems/find-all-anagrams-in-a-string/

    public class Solution {
        public List<Integer> findAnagrams(String s, String t) {
            List<Integer> result = new LinkedList<>();
            if(t.length()> s.length()) return result;
            Map<Character, Integer> map = new HashMap<>();
            for(char c : t.toCharArray()){
                map.put(c, map.getOrDefault(c, 0) + 1);
            }
            int counter = map.size();
            
            int begin = 0, end = 0;
            int head = 0;
            int len = Integer.MAX_VALUE;
            
            
            while(end < s.length()){
                char c = s.charAt(end);
                if( map.containsKey(c) ){
                    map.put(c, map.get(c)-1);
                    if(map.get(c) == 0) counter--;
                }
                end++;
                
                while(counter == 0){
                    char tempc = s.charAt(begin);
                    if(map.containsKey(tempc)){
                        map.put(tempc, map.get(tempc) + 1);
                        if(map.get(tempc) > 0){
                            counter++;
                        }
                    }
                    if(end-begin == t.length()){
                        result.add(begin);
                    }
                    begin++;
                }
                
            }
            return result;
        }
    }
    

  • 0
    S

    @HarryChaoyangHe May I know the reason behind the condition for the second while loop as counter == 0? Thank you.


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