• Firstly preprocess input string to create a list of integers, brackets and operators.
Then iterate over the list. If we see an operator, store it. If we see an integer apply the operator and integer to the previous calculation. If we see an opening bracket then recurse until the closing bracket.

``````    def calculate(self, s):
digits = {str(i) for i in range(10)}
expression = ['(']      # wrap whole expression with brackets, easily identifies end

for c in s:             # pre-process string into list of operators, brackets and ints
if c == ' ':        # ignore blanks
continue
if c not in digits: # operator or bracket
expression.append(c)
elif isinstance(expression[-1], int):   # extending integer
expression[-1] = expression[-1]*10 + int(c)
else:                                   # new integer
expression.append(int(c))

expression.append(')')
result, _ = self.evaluate(expression, 1)
return result

def evaluate(self, expression, i):      # evaluate from index i onwards to closing bracket
calc, operator = 0, '+'
while expression[i] != ')':

atom = expression[i]
if atom == '+' or atom == '-':  # store the operator
operator = atom
else:                           # open bracket or integer
if isinstance(atom, int):
num = atom
else:                       # recurse on bracketed expression
num, i = self.evaluate(expression, i+1)

if operator == '+':         # apply operator to num
calc += num
else:
calc -= num
i += 1

return calc, i      # return calculation and index of closing bracket
``````

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