# Clear explanations for efficient solution

• Read below first (easier non-duplicate explanations):
https://discuss.leetcode.com/topic/61986/clear-explanations-for-log-n-efficiency

Recall valid inputs such as
[0 1 2 4 5 6 7]
[2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 2 2]

1. Loop invariant: closed searching interval [low, high] must include target if it exists.
2. Input may be ordered or ordered-drop-ordered. For either case, without duplicates, if nums[mid] <= nums[-1] (last element), right half is ordered, else left half is ordered. With duplicates, we should make this key condition still valid by moving initial low left-ward until != nums[-1]. This is possibly O(n).
3. Ordered half enables constant-time check for whether target is in the ordered half ("nums[low] <= target < nums[mid]" or "nums[mid] < target <= nums[high]") or the other unordered half. Hence binary search is possible.
``````class Solution(object):
def search(self, nums, target):
low = 0
high = len(nums) - 1

# Change part begin (comparing with non-duplication problem)
# Make key condition still valid: if nums[mid] <= nums[-1], right half is ordered,
# else left half is ordered.
if len(nums) == 0:
return False
else:
if nums[0] == target:
return True
else:
# CARE: low may be out of range.
while low < len(nums) and nums[low] == nums[-1]:
low += 1
# Change part end (comparing with non-duplication problem)

while low <= high:
mid = (high - low) / 2 + low
if nums[mid] == target:
return True
else:
# Right half is ordered.
if nums[mid] <= nums[-1]:
# Target is in right half.
if nums[mid] < target <= nums[high]:
low = mid + 1
# Target is in left half.
else:
high = mid - 1
# Left half is ordered.
else:
# Target is in left half.
if nums[low] <= target < nums[mid]:
high = mid - 1
# Target is in right half.
else:
low = mid + 1
return False
``````

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