A (hopefully) correct solution to the Perfect Rectangle problem

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    This one cost me 10 minutes of penalty time because of a very stupid typo in getBounds, but otherwise it passes all OJ tests, and this tricky test too:

    [[0, 1, 2, 3],[0, 1, 1, 2],[2, 2, 3, 3],[1, 0, 3, 1],[2, 0, 3, 1]]

    The idea is to compare the total area first. If it doesn't match, return false, otherwise check for overlaps.

    To check for overlaps, I sweep through the area along a certain axis (I chose x, a more efficient algorithm would pick one for a reason). While sweeping, check for overlaps with other rectangles along the other axis. Once an overlap is found, return false immediately.

    To sweep, I build a list of “key points”. These are coordinates where a rectangle starts or ends. I sort them so ends come before starts, so where rectangles touch, I always remove ending ones first, therefore I don't have to do any special checks for overlaps at rectangle borders (which are fine).

    To check for overlaps, I use the same key point structure, but this time I perform a binary search to figure out where to put the next rectangle. It must go either before/after all others, or between end of one rectangle and start of another, otherwise we have an overlap.

    The complexity is probably awful. A loop over key points is O(n) already, where n is the number of rectangles. Then there is these insert/remove, which are O(n) as well, which gives the worst-case complexity of O(n^2), I think. But insert/remove are actually tremendously fast on modern hardware, so it passes the OJ. A funny thing is that if I don't do that binary search in the remove function, but just call remove(<key point>), which is also O(n), then I get TLE because ArrayList compares every element to the one being removed. Removing by index, on the other hand, is probably just a memcpy call.

    One way to optimize this would be to use an interval tree instead of a list, but that would certainly take a lot of time to code. Even this code was much uglier when I first submitted it during the contest. This is the result of cleaning it up a bit:

        public boolean isRectangleCover(int[][] rectangles) {
            int totalArea = Stream.of(rectangles).mapToInt(r -> area(r)).sum();
            if (totalArea != area(getBounds(rectangles)))
                return false;
            List<KeyPoint> keyPointsX = new ArrayList<>();
            for (int i = 0; i < rectangles.length; ++i) {
                keyPointsX.add(new KeyPoint(rectangles[i][0], rectangles[i], true));
                keyPointsX.add(new KeyPoint(rectangles[i][2], rectangles[i], true));
            KeyPointList keyPointsY = new KeyPointList();
            for (KeyPoint kpx : keyPointsX) {
                KeyPoint start = new KeyPoint(kpx.rectangle[1], kpx.rectangle, false);
                KeyPoint end = new KeyPoint(kpx.rectangle[3], kpx.rectangle, false);
                if (kpx.isRectangleEndsHere()) {
                } else {
                    int insertionPoint = keyPointsY.getNonOverlappingInsertionPoint(start, end);
                    if (insertionPoint == -1)
                        return false;
                    keyPointsY.add(insertionPoint, start, end);
            return true;
        private int[] getBounds(int[][] rectangles) {
            int[] bounds = new int[4];
            int left = Integer.MAX_VALUE, right = Integer.MIN_VALUE,
                    top = Integer.MIN_VALUE, bottom = Integer.MAX_VALUE;
            for (int i = 0; i < rectangles.length; ++i) {
                left = Math.min(left, rectangles[i][0]);
                right = Math.max(right, rectangles[i][2]);
                top = Math.max(top, rectangles[i][3]);
                bottom = Math.min(bottom, rectangles[i][1]);
            bounds[0] = left;
            bounds[1] = bottom;
            bounds[2] = right;
            bounds[3] = top;
            return bounds;
        private static int area(int[] rectangle) {
            return (rectangle[2] - rectangle[0]) * (rectangle[3] - rectangle[1]);
        private static class KeyPointList {
            final List<KeyPoint> keyPoints = new ArrayList<>();
            void remove(KeyPoint keyPoint) {
                keyPoints.remove(Collections.binarySearch(keyPoints, keyPoint));
            int getNonOverlappingInsertionPoint(KeyPoint start, KeyPoint end) {
                int startIndex = -Collections.binarySearch(keyPoints, start) - 1;
                int endIndex = -Collections.binarySearch(keyPoints, end) - 1;
                if (overlaps(startIndex, endIndex))
                    return -1;
                return startIndex;
            private boolean overlaps(int startIndex, int endIndex) {
                if (startIndex != endIndex)
                    return true; // some rectangle start or ends inside this one
                if (startIndex == 0)
                    return false; // this one comes before the first starts
                KeyPoint preceding = keyPoints.get(startIndex - 1);
                if (preceding.isRectangleStartsHere())
                    return true; // this one is completely inside another rectangle
                return false;
            void add(int insertionPoint, KeyPoint start, KeyPoint end) {
                keyPoints.add(insertionPoint, start);
                keyPoints.add(insertionPoint + 1, end);
        private static class KeyPoint implements Comparable<KeyPoint> {
            final int coordinate;
            final int[] rectangle;
            private final boolean horizontal;
            KeyPoint(int coordinate, int[] rectangle, boolean horizontal) {
                this.coordinate = coordinate;
                this.rectangle = rectangle;
                this.horizontal = horizontal;
            boolean isRectangleStartsHere() {
                return horizontal
                        ? coordinate == rectangle[0]
                        : coordinate == rectangle[1];
            boolean isRectangleEndsHere() {
                return horizontal
                        ? coordinate == rectangle[2]
                        : coordinate == rectangle[3];
            public int compareTo(KeyPoint o) {
                int xc = Integer.compare(coordinate, o.coordinate);
                if (xc == 0) {
                    if (isRectangleEndsHere() && o.isRectangleStartsHere())
                        return -1;
                    else if (isRectangleStartsHere() && o.isRectangleEndsHere())
                        return +1;
                        return xc;
                } else {
                    return xc;

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