# What's the difference?

• ``````int singleNumber(vector<int>& nums) {
int s[32] = {0}, ans = 0, i, j;
for (i = 0; i < nums.size(); i++) {
for (j = 0; j < 32; j++) {
s[j] += nums[i]&1;
nums[i] >>= 1;
}
}
for (i = 0; i < 32; i++)
if (s[i]%3)
ans += pow(2, i);
return ans;
}

int singleNumber(vector<int>& nums) {
int s[32] = {0}, ans = 0, i, j;
for (i = 0; i < nums.size(); i++)
for (j = 0; j < 32; j++) {
s[j] += nums[i]&1;
nums[i] >>= 1;
}
for (i = 31; i >= 0; i--)
if (s[i]%3)
ans += pow(2, i);
return ans;
}
``````

The latter was accepted but the former not, why?

• `pow` gives you a double, so the sum is a double, and sometimes it doesn't fit into ints and then apparently the behavior is undefined.

``````        if (s[i]%3) {
cout << ans << " + " << long(pow(2, i)) << " = " << (ans + pow(2, i));
ans += pow(2, i);
cout << " (becomes " << ans << ")" << endl;
}
``````

The output is:

``````0 + 4 = 4 (becomes 4)
4 + 8 = 12 (becomes 12)
...
1073741820 + 1073741824 = 2.14748e+09 (becomes 2147483644)
2147483644 + 2147483648 = 4.29497e+09 (becomes -2147483648)
``````

You can see it goes wrong in the last addition, because the value is too large, and then it becomes INT_MIN just like it did for the questioner from that StackOverflow thread.

Doing the same with the working solution outputs this:

``````0 + 2147483648 = 2.14748e+09 (becomes -2147483648)
-2147483648 + 1073741824 = -1.07374e+09 (becomes -1073741824)
...
-16 + 8 = -8 (becomes -8)
-8 + 4 = -4 (becomes -4)
``````

The first addition ends up "correct", though I'm guessing because it also defaults to INT_MIN, which just luckily happens to be what you need there. And after that, the values all fit into ints, so there's no problem.

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